Lead-based paint has become of significant concern throughout the country because of elevated child blood lead levels. Elevated level of blood lead has been found to cause slow learning and impaired brain development in small children. Lead-based paint can be found in structure painted (or built) before 1978.

Inspection of buildings containing lead-based paint (LBP), under State and Federal Regulations must be completed by licensed LBP inspectors. During the inspection, material condition is noted, and in particular, "friction surfaces" are carefully looked out. In many buildings, flaking paint on friction surfaces such as wood window sashes and doors and window trim are a source of lead-based paint, to which children are exposed. Window sills with dust or flaking paint are a particular exposure area, because children frequently placed wet fingers and hands on window sills at intervals, to be able to see outside.

If lead-based paint abatement is needed, such work should only completed by licensed contractors. All lead-based abatement projects where elevated child blood lead levels have been found by a local health department can only be completed by licensed ACM contractors; this work is overseen by licensed ACM inspectors. Building owners are also urged to be very cautious about renovations, as inadvertent contamination can occur if renovation contractors spread lead dust, requiring costly and time consuming clean up. Also, on premises where lead-based paint dust is present, regular vacuums should not be used, as their use can inadvertently grind up paint chips and spread lead dust, further contaminating the premises. Only vacuums with HEPA filters, or wet mopping techniques should be used in buildings where there is any lead-based which is fair or poor condition.

Under Federal Rules, residential premises buyers and tenants must be informed of lead-based paint hazards by the seller and the landlord. Starting in June, 1999, new Federal EPA regulations will also require tenants and owners to be informed of the hazards that can be created by improper renovation, meaning that more and more renovation work, particularly in older cities, will be required to be conducted by licensed lead-based paint contractors, where renovations could cause hazards to subsequent occupants of the premises.

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